Unveiling chemical responses in the kombucha-based fermentation of black tea, banana flower, and grape juice: LC-ESIMS, GNPS, MS-DIAL, and MS-FINDER-assisted chemical characterization

Food Funct. 2024 Mar 4;15(5):2497-2523. doi: 10.1039/d3fo04977a.


The lack of studies evaluating the chemical responses of kombucha microorganisms when exposed to plants is notable in the literature. Therefore, this work investigates the chemical behaviour of 7-, 14- and 21 day-fermentation of kombucha derived from three extracts obtained from banana inflorescence, black tea, and grape juice. After the acquisition of UPLC-ESI-MS data, GNPS molecular networking, MS-Dial, and MS-Finder were used to chemically characterize the samples. The microbial chemical responses were enzymatic hydrolysis, oxidation, and biosynthesis. The biosynthesis was different among the kombucha samples. In fermented black tea, gallic and dihydrosinapic acids were found as hydrolysis products alongside a sugar-derived product namely 7-(α-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyheptanoic acid. The sphingolipids, safingol and cedefingol alongside capryloyl glycine and palmitoyl proline were identified. In fermented grapes, sugar degradation and chemical transformation products were detected together with three cell membrane hopanoids characterized as hydroxybacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether, (Δ6 or Δ11)-hydroxybacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol ether, and methyl (Δ6 or Δ11)-hydroxybacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol. The fermented banana blossom showed the presence of methyl (Δ6 or Δ11)-hydroxybacteriohopanetetrol cyclitol together with sphingofungin B, sphinganine and other fatty acid derivatives. Parts of these samples were tested for their inhibition against α-glucosidase and their antioxidant effects. Except for the 14-day fermented extracts, other black tea extracts showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase ranging from 42.5 to 42.8%. A 14-day fermented extract of the banana blossom infusion showed an inhibition of 29.1%, while grape samples were less active than acarbose. The 21-day fermented black tea extract showed moderate antioxidant properties on a DPPH-based model with an EC50 of 5.29 ± 0.10 μg mL-1, while the other extracts were weakly active (EC50 between 80.76 and 168.12 μg mL-1).

PMID:38334749 | DOI:10.1039/d3fo04977a