Unravelling the Antimicrobial, Antibiofilm, Suppressing Fibronectin Binding Protein A (fnba) and cna Virulence Genes, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Potential of Biosynthesized Solanum lycopersicum Silver Nanoparticles

Medicina (Kaunas). 2024 Mar 21;60(3):515. doi: 10.3390/medicina60030515.


Background and Objectives: Urinary tract infections [UTIs] are considered the third most known risk of infection in human health around the world. There is increasing appreciation for the pathogenicity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains in UTIs, aside from fungal infection, as they have numerous virulence factors. Materials and Methods: In this study, fifty urine samples were collected from patients suffering from UTI. Among the isolates of UTI microbes, six isolates were described as MDR isolates after an antibiotic susceptibility test carried out using ten different antibiotics. An alternative treatment for microbial elimination involved the use of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) derived from Solanum lycopersicum [S. cumin]. Results: The sizes and shapes of AgNPs were characterized through TEM imaging, which showed spherical particles in a size range of 35-80 nm, of which the average size was 53 nm. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) demonstrated inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus (OR648079), exhibiting a 31 mm zone of inhibition at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 4 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 8 mg/mL. This was followed by Aspergillus niger (OR648075), which showed a 30 mm inhibition zone at an MIC of 16 mg/mL and a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 32 mg/mL. Then, Enterococcus faecalis (OR648078), Klebsiella pneumoniae (OR648081), and Acinetobacter baumannii (OR648080) each displayed a 29 mm zone of inhibition at an MIC of 8 mg/mL and an MBC of 16 mg/mL. The least inhibition was observed against Candida auris (OR648076), with a 25 mm inhibition zone at an MIC of 16 mg/mL and an MFC of 32 mg/mL. Furthermore, AgNPs at different concentrations removed DPPH and H2O2 at an IC50 value of 13.54 μg/mL. Also, AgNPs at 3 mg/mL showed remarkable DNA fragmentation in all bacterial strains except Enterococcus faecalis. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of different active organic components in the plant extract, which concluded that rutin was 88.3 mg/g, garlic acid was 70.4 mg/g, and tannic acid was 23.7 mg/g. Finally, AgNPs concentrations in the range of 3-6 mg/mL showed decreased expression of two of the fundamental genes necessary for biofilm formation within Staphylococcus aureus, fnbA (6 folds), and Cna (12.5 folds) when compared with the RecA gene, which decreased by one-fold when compared with the control sample. These two genes were submitted with NCBI accession numbers [OR682119] and [OR682118], respectively. Conclusions: The findings from this study indicate that biosynthesized AgNPs from Solanum lycopersicum exhibit promising antimicrobial and antioxidant properties against UTI pathogens, including strains resistant to multiple antibiotics. This suggests their potential as an effective alternative treatment for UTIs. Further research is warranted to fully understand the mechanisms of action and to explore the therapeutic applications of these nanoparticles in combating UTIs.

PMID:38541241 | PMC:PMC10972527 | DOI:10.3390/medicina60030515