Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic herb-drug interactions-part I. Herbal medicines of the central nervous system

PeerJ. 2023 Nov 15;11:e16149. doi: 10.7717/peerj.16149. eCollection 2023.


Unlike conventional drug substances, herbal medicines are composed of a complex of biologically active compounds. Therefore, the potential occurrence of herb-drug interactions is even more probable than for drug-drug interactions. Interactions can occur on both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic level. Herbal medicines may affect the resulting efficacy of the concomitantly used (synthetic) drugs, mainly on the pharmacokinetic level, by changing their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Studies on the pharmacodynamic interactions of herbal medicines and conventional drugs are still very limited. This interaction level is related to the mechanism of action of different plant constituents. Herb-drug interactions can cause changes in drug levels and activities and lead to therapeutic failure and/or side effects (sometimes toxicities, even fatal). This review aims to provide a summary of recent information on the potential drug interactions involving commonly used herbal medicines that affect the central nervous system (Camellia, Valeriana, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Humulus, Cannabis) and conventional drugs. The survey databases were used to identify primary scientific publications, case reports, and secondary databases on interactions were used later on as well. Search keywords were based on plant names (botanical genera), officinal herbal drugs, herbal drug preparations, herbal drug extracts.

PMID:38025741 | PMC:PMC10656908 | DOI:10.7717/peerj.16149