Fish oil supplementation and risk of dementia among diabetic patients: a prospective study of 16,061 older patients

J Nutr Health Aging. 2024 Feb 9:100176. doi: 10.1016/j.jnha.2024.100176. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: Although n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may benefit cognitive performance, the association of n-3 PUFA intake with dementia risk under dysglycemia has not been examined. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between fish oil supplement use or fish consumption and dementia risk among older patients with diabetes.

METHOD: A total of 16,061 diabetic patients aged over 60 years were followed up in the UK Biobank. Fish oil supplements use (yes or no) was collected by the touch screen questionnaire. The diagnosis of dementia was ascertained by the UK Biobank Outcome Adjudication Group. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: A total of 337 cases of dementia were confirmed after a mean duration of 7.7 years (123,486 person-years) of follow-up. Habitual use of fish oil supplements showed a 24% lower dementia risk among older diabetic patients [HRs (95% CIs): 0.76 (0.60-0.98) (P = 0.031)] compared with non-users. Such inverse association was not modified by the APOE ε4 genotype. However, the consumption of both oily fish (≥2 times/week) and non-oily fish (≥2 times/week) had no significant association with dementia risk (p-trend = 0.271 and p-trend = 0.065) compared with non-consumers.

CONCLUSION: In summary, fish oil supplementation may play a protective role in cognitive function across all APOE genotypes, while non-oily fish and oily fish consumption have no protective association among older diabetic patients.

PMID:38341308 | DOI:10.1016/j.jnha.2024.100176