Evaluation of cytotoxic activity and anticancer potential of indigenous Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) dry extracts on MG-63 bone osteosarcoma human cell line

Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2021 Apr-Jun;62(2):525-535. doi: 10.47162/RJME.62.2.19.


We aimed to investigate the cytotoxic activity of indigenous Rosemary and Oregano freeze-dried extracts upon MG-63 osteosarcoma human cell line. We have determined the influence of analyzed dry extracts on cell morphology, cell survival and cell proliferation. The evaluation of dry extracts effect upon cell proliferation and viability was assessed by means of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. For cytotoxicity evaluation, Live & Dead and lactate dehydrogenase assays have been used. To further investigate the potential anticancer effect, we have studied the influence of dry extracts upon cells, by means of caspase-3∕7 assay and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. Cells were incubated with extracts in the following concentration range (100-700 μg∕mL) for 24 hours. According to our results, both dry extracts have shown cytotoxic effects by means of all used methods. Bone osteosarcoma cells viability significantly decreased with increasing concentration of analyzed extracts (beyond 300 μg∕mL for Rosemary dry extract and only at 700 μg∕mL for Oregano dry extract). According to our results, apoptosis is one of the main mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic properties of analyzed extracts. Moreover, Rosemary extract has also shown decreased expression of PCNA, when compared to control (untreated cells). Both extracts were standardized in phenolic compounds (being a rich source of flavones and phenolcarboxylic acids), so we assume that these are the main constituents involved in the cytotoxic effect. Still, further preclinical studies are needed to confirm the antitumor properties and to go deeply in the molecular mechanisms involved.

PMID:35024741 | PMC:PMC8848263 | DOI:10.47162/RJME.62.2.19