Effects of Synthesis Parameters on Structure and Antimicrobial Properties of Bacterial Cellulose/Hydroxyapatite/TiO2 Polymer-Ceramic Composite Material

Polymers (Basel). 2024 Feb 7;16(4):470. doi: 10.3390/polym16040470.


Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a highly pure polysaccharide biopolymer that can be produced by various bacterial genera. Even though BC lacks functional properties, its porosity, three-dimensional network, and high specific surface area make it a suitable carrier for functional composite materials. In the present study, BC-producing bacteria were isolated from kombucha beverage and identified using a molecular method. Two sets of the BC hydrogels were produced in static conditions after four and seven days. Afterwards, two different synthesis pathways were applied for BC functionalization. The first method implied the incorporation of previously synthesized HAp/TiO2 nanocomposite using an immersion technique, while the second method included the functionalization of BC during the synthesis of HAp/TiO2 nanocomposite in the reaction mixture. The primary goal was to find the best method to obtain the functionalized material. Physicochemical and microstructural properties were analyzed by SEM, EDS, FTIR, and XRD methods. Further properties were examined by tensile test and thermogravimetric analysis, and antimicrobial activity was assessed by a total plate count assay. The results showed that HAp/TiO2 was successfully incorporated into the produced BC hydrogels using both methods. The applied methods of incorporation influenced the differences in morphology, phase distribution, mechanical and thermal properties, and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 12453), and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). Composite material can be recommended for further development and application in environments that are suitable for diseases spreading.

PMID:38399848 | PMC:PMC10892185 | DOI:10.3390/polym16040470