Effect of fish-oil supplementation on the glycemic and lipidemic profiles of pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Nutr Rev. 2024 Feb 5:nuad158. doi: 10.1093/nutrit/nuad158. Online ahead of print.


CONTEXT: Pregnant women have physiological metabolic changes in glycemic and lipid profiles that are essential for fetal development.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the effects of fish-oil-capsule supplementation on the glycemic and lipid profiles of pregnant women.

DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was conducted of the MEDLINE (by PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) databases and gray literature, including preprints for all relevant studies published in English, with no date restrictions.

DATA EXTRACTION: The estimated pooled results were analyzed using a random-effects model and represented by mean differences (MDs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The analyses were performed with R software, version 4.2.1, using the “Meta” packages, versions 6.0-0.

DATA ANALYSIS: Fifteen eligible studies were included after screening. In a pooled analysis, overall fish-oil supplementation had no effect on parameters compared with placebo. In the subgroup analysis, fish-oil supplementation may be beneficial in insulin (MD: -2.11 IU/mL; 95% CI: -3.86, -0.36) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (MD: -0.71; 95% CI: -1.14, -0.29) indices, with heterogeneity (I2 =0%) among pregnant women with diabetes mellitus. In the subgroup with doses of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) below 200 mg, there was a reduction in HOMA-IR in the intervention group (MD: -0.60; 95% CI: -1.14, -0.06).

CONCLUSION: Pregnant women taking fish-oil capsules showed significant beneficial changes in the subgroups of type 2 diabetes and EPA dosages below 200 mg for insulin and HOMA-IR.

PMID:38318725 | DOI:10.1093/nutrit/nuad158