Dietary Factors May Delay Tolerance Acquisition in Food Protein-Induced Allergic Proctocolitis

Nutrients. 2023 Jan 13;15(2):425. doi: 10.3390/nu15020425.


BACKGROUND: Dietary and environmental factors may influence tolerance acquisition in food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP). This retrospective observational study explored the role of maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding in tolerance acquisition in infantile FPIAP.

METHODS: Breastfed infants with FPIAP from six diverse regions in Greece were divided into two groups, based on development of tolerance to the trigger food: Group A (n = 43), before, and Group B (n = 53), after, the 6th month of age. Maternal diet during pregnancy and breastfeeding was elicited using the Mediterranean Diet Score Questionnaire and the Mediterranean Oriented Culture Specific Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire.

RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis of FPIAP (1.5 months) and weaning (5.5 months) were the same in both groups. The main trigger was cow’s milk. Group A received infant milk formula earlier than Group B. Group B had a higher incidence of asthma/wheeze, siblings with milk allergy, maternal smoking and rural residence. On multivariate analysis, earlier resolution of FPIAP was associated with higher maternal education and with salt intake and consumption of goat/sheep cheese during pregnancy and olive oil during breastfeeding. Consumption of multivitamins during pregnancy and meat, winter fruits, green vegetables, butter, salt, “ready-to-eat” meals and pastries during breastfeeding were correlated with longer duration of symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: Mothers of children with FPIAP to cow’s milk protein can be advised to eat more yogurt, cheese and olive oil during subsequent pregnancies, and avoid multivitamins, grilled food, “ready-to-eat” meals, pastries, meat and alcohol during breastfeeding, to reduce the duration of FPIAP presenting in future infants.

PMID:36678296 | PMC:PMC9862452 | DOI:10.3390/nu15020425