Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Potential of Launaea mucronata Forssk Essential Oil Growing in Northern Saudi Arabia

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Molecules. 2023 Oct 11;28(20):7025. doi: 10.3390/molecules28207025.

ABSTRACT

Essential oils are naturally occurring multicomponent combinations of isoprenoids with distinctive odors that are produced by aromatic plants from mevalonic acid. They are extensively applied in aromatherapy for the treatment of various ailments. To investigate the potential therapeutic value of the ingredients in Launaea mucronata essential oil (EO), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for essential oil characterization. Then, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene/linoleic acid, and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were used to evaluate the antioxidants. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to estimate the cytotoxicity. Following a thorough analysis of the GC-MS chromatogram, 87 components representing 97.98% of the entire EO mixture were identified. N-eicosane (10.92%), 2E,6Z-farnesol (10.74%), and 2Z,6E-farnesyl acetone (46.35%) were determined to be the major components of the oil. When the produced EO was evaluated for its antioxidant properties, it showed a strong inhibitory effect (%) of 65.34 at a concentration of 80 μg/mL. The results (g/mL) showed a positive response against the tested cell lines for HCT-116, MCF-7, and HepG2 (8.45, 10.24, and 6.78 g/mL, respectively). A high-concentration mixture of deadly components consisting of farnesol, bisabolol, eicosane, and farnesyl acetone may be responsible for this significant cytotoxic action, which was especially noticeable in the HepG2 cell line. Molecular docking occurred between farnesol and farnesyl acetone with the target residues of topoisomerases I and II, CDK4/cyclD1, and Aurora B kinases; these showed binding free energies ranging from -4.5 to -7.4 kcal/mol, thus demonstrating their antiproliferative action. In addition, farnesol and farnesyl acetone fulfilled most of the ADME and drug-likeness properties, indicating their activity.

PMID:37894504 | DOI:10.3390/molecules28207025

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