Cardiovascular Diseases and Marine Oils: A Focus on Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Polar Lipids

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Mar Drugs. 2023 Oct 24;21(11):549. doi: 10.3390/md21110549.


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death across the globe, hence, establishing strategies to counteract CVD are imperative to reduce mortality and the burden on health systems. Dietary modification is an effective primary prevention strategy against CVD. Research regarding dietary supplementation has become increasingly popular. This review focuses on the current in vivo, in vitro, and epidemiological studies associated with that of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and polar lipids (PLs) and how they play a role against CVD. Furthermore, this review focuses on the results of several major clinical trials examining n-3 PUFAs regarding both primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Notably, we place a lens on the REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH trials. Finally, supplementation of PLs has recently been suggested as a potential alternative avenue for the reduction of CVD incidence versus neutral forms of n-3 PUFAs. However, the clinical evidence for this argument is currently rather limited. Therefore, we draw on the current literature to suggest future clinical trials for PL supplementation. We conclude that despite conflicting evidence, future human trials must be completed to confirm whether PL supplementation may be more effective than n-3 PUFA supplementation to reduce cardiovascular risk.

PMID:37999373 | DOI:10.3390/md21110549

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