Anticancer effect of minor phytocannabinoids in preclinical models of multiple myeloma

Biofactors. 2024 May 17. doi: 10.1002/biof.2078. Online ahead of print.


Multiple myeloma (MM) is a blood cancer caused by uncontrolled growth of clonal plasmacells. Bone disease is responsible for the severe complications of MM and is caused by myeloma cells infiltrating the bone marrow and inducing osteoclast activation. To date, no treatment for MM is truly curative since patients relapse and become refractory to all drug classes. Cannabinoids are already used as palliative in cancer patients. Furthermore, their proper anticancer effect was demonstrated in many cancer models in vitro, in vivo, and in clinical trials. Anyway, few information was reported on the effect of cannabinoids on MM and no data has been provided on minor phytocannabinoids such as cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidivarin (CBDV). Scientific literature also reported cannabinoids beneficial effect against bone disease. Here, we examined the cytotoxic activity of CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBDV in vitro in MM cell lines, their effect in modulating MM cells invasion toward bone cells and the bone resorption. Subsequently, according to the in vitro results, we selected CBN for in vivo study in a MM xenograft mice model. Results showed that the phytocannabinoids inhibited MM cell growth and induced necrotic cell death. Moreover, the phytocannabinoids reduced the invasion of MM cells toward osteoblast cells and bone resorption in vitro. Lastly, CBN reduced in vivo tumor mass. Together, our results suggest that CBG, CBC, CBN, and CBDV can be promising anticancer agents for MM.

PMID:38760945 | DOI:10.1002/biof.2078