Progress in the analysis of phytocannabinoids by HPLC and UPLC (or UHPLC) during 2020-2023

Phytochem Anal. 2024 Jun 4. doi: 10.1002/pca.3374. Online ahead of print.


INTRODUCTION: Organic molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors are known as cannabinoids. These molecules possess pharmacological properties similar to those produced by Cannabis sativa L. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, also known as ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, UHPLC) have become the most widely used analytical tools for detection and quantification of phytocannabinoids in various matrices. HPLC and UPLC (or UHPLC) are usually coupled to an ultraviolet (UV), photodiode array (PDA), or mass spectrometric (MS) detector.

OBJECTIVE: To critically appraise the literature on the application of HPLC and UPLC (or UHPLC) methods for the analysis of phytocannabinoids published from January 2020 to December 2023.

METHODOLOGY: An extensive literature search was conducted using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar and published materials including relevant books. In various combinations, using cannabinoid in all combinations, cannabis, hemp, hashish, C. sativa, marijuana, analysis, HPLC, UHPLC, UPLC, and quantitative, qualitative, and quality control were used as the keywords for the literature search.

RESULTS: Several HPLC- and UPLC (or UHPLC)-based methods for the analysis of phytocannabinoids were reported. While simple HPLC-UV or HPLC-PDA-based methods were common, the use of HPLC-MS, HPLC-MS/MS, UPLC (or UHPLC)-PDA, UPLC (or UHPLC)-MS, and UPLC (or UHPLC)-MS/MS was also reported. Applications of mathematical and computational models for optimization of protocols were noted. Pre-analyses included various environmentally friendly extraction protocols.

CONCLUSION: During the last 4 years, HPLC and UPLC (or UHPLC) remained the main analytical tools for phytocannabinoid analysis in different matrices.

PMID:38837522 | DOI:10.1002/pca.3374